Tuesday, June 19, 2018

Industrial Vibration Monitoring

Vibration Monitoring
Vibration Monitoring
All you have to do is drive in a car to understand that failing mechanical systems create symptoms that can be detected by our sense of feel. Vibrations in the steering wheel may indicate bad steering linkage. Transmission wear may manifest as loud or hard gear shifting. Exhaust systems that have come loose may be felt as in the floorboards as vibrations. All of these have one thing in common - degradation of a mechanical device beyond design specifications to the point of creating abnormal levels of vibration.

What is vibration?

Vibration is defined as “an oscillation of the parts of a fluid or an elastic solid whose equilibrium has been disturbed.”

Asset Monitoring on Large Equipment
Asset Monitoring for Large Equipment
Most important to understand is that vibration is motion, and that motion cycles around a position of equilibrium. Simply touch a running machine and you know if it's running or not, because the machine's motor creates a vibration which is transmitted to the other areas of the machine. In some machines, many parts can be rotating simultaneously, with each contributing it's own unique pattern of vibration. Human touch merely senses the sum of all these vibrations because touch is not sensitive to distinguish the individual differences. Vibration detection instrumentation and signature analysis software can sort out the various vibration components using sensors to quantify the magnitude of vibration, and more accurately determine how rough or smooth the machine is running. Vibration amplitude and the magnitude of vibration is expressed as:

Vibration Sensor
Sensor
Acceleration – The rate of change of velocity. Recognizing that vibrational forces are cyclic, both the magnitude of displacement and velocity change from a neutral or minimum value to some maximum. Acceleration is a value representing the maximum rate that velocity (speed of the displacement) is increasing.

Velocity – The speed at which a machine or machine component is moving as it undergoes oscillating motion.

Displacement – Also known as “peak-to-peak displacement”, this is the total distance traveled by the vibrating part from one extreme limit of travel to the other extreme limit of travel.

A variety of sensors are available that will sense vibrational displacement, velocity or acceleration, and provide a proportionate, measurable output signal. Applying these sensors depend largely on the machine condition with the help of limited guidelines published to determine the relative running condition of a machine.

Sensor Installed on Motor
Sensor Installed on Motor
Vibration signature analysis can be used in defining the exact machine location of the vibration and what component of the machine is in need of repair or replacement. When the vibration magnitude exceeds a predetermined value, sensors and software can narrow down the individual vibration signals and separate them via vibration magnitude and frequency. Combined with a little machine design understanding, a person schooled in vibration signature analysis can interpret this information to define the machine problem down to a component level. However, there are no guidelines to determine the absolute  limits of failure or indefinite life for machines. It is simply not possible to establish absolute vibration limits. Predictive maintenance programs are intended to establish severity criteria or limits above which action will be taken and monitor the overall condition of machines.

Vibration monitoring and analysis is used to uncover and predict a wide variety of problems related to rotating equipment, such as:
Predictive analysis for wind turbines
Predictive analysis for wind turbines.
  • Sleeve-bearing problems
  • Gear problems
  • Unbalance
  • Belt drive problems
  • Eccentric rotors
  • Flow-induced vibration problems
  • Rolling element bearing problems
  • Mechanical looseness/weakness
  • Misalignment
  • Resonance problems
  • Electrical problems
  • Rotor rub

Determining or predicting the presence of these problems is difficult, but asset monitoring technology is advancing quickly. As progress is made, modern manufacturing and production facilities can look forward to tremendous safety advancements and large cost savings through reliable and accurate predictive failure analysis.

Contact Arjay Automation to discuss your vibration and asset monitoring requirement. You can find them at https://arjaynet.com.

Wednesday, June 6, 2018

A Pressure Transmitter Design with Overpressure Protection

Overpressure Protection
Overpressure Protection Design
Overpressure can cause a pressure transmitter to fail or impair its performance. This effect happens when excessive differential pressure is applied to the device which is greater than its measuring range. Overpressure can occur from improper manifold sequencing, startup and shutdown conditions, or a sudden process upset. Yokogawa's unique capsule design equalizes overpressure within the capsule before it can reach the measurement sensor. Therefore Yokogawa's pressure transmitters prevent failure and minimize any performance impact from overpressure events. Overpressure protection provides
  • Increased reliability from reduced failures
  • Improved long-term stability in real-world conditions
  • Reduced maintenance costs through fewer unscheduled calibrations
The video below demonstrates how this is done.

For more information, contact Arjay Automation by visiting https://arjaynet.com or calling (800) 761-1749.

Wednesday, May 30, 2018

Bidirectional Insertion Turbine Meters Solve Municipal Water Transfer and Usage Problem

Municipal water diagram using insertion turbine flowmeters.
Municipal water system diagram.
Application: 

Accurate and cost effective flow monitoring for municipal water inventory control. Because of their wide geographic coverage and large amount of reservoirs and pump stations, the water utility needed to account for water moving between many user systems. Because of the movement of water back and forth, a bi-directional solution was needed.

System Requirements:
  1. Flowmeters were for use in 62″, 60″, and 36″ lines.
  2. Needed to be bi-directional to account for system usage.
  3. Needed to provide a “split” 4-20 mA output signal with 12 to 4 mA representing reverse flow and 12 to 20 mA representing forward flow (this was a requirement of their DCS system).
  4. Flowmeter portion of system had to be capable of immersion in a flooded pit (electronics to be located remote).
  5. Output from flowmeter was required to transmit over 500′ without any signal conditioning.
Solution: 

Hoffer HP Series bi-directional insertion flowmeter
Hoffer HP Series bi-directional insertion flowmeter.
Bi-directional, adjustable insertion turbine flowmeters (from Hoffer Flow Controls) were provided. Each meters included a 2″ rotor in order to obtain repeatable flow rates as low as .25 FPS. The flowmeters are equipped with 2 magnetic pick up coils oriented 90 electrical degrees from each another. All outputs were sent to a remote Flowstar Model 2000 which included the quadrature bi-directional detection feature and a split 4-20 mA signal, used to detect forward or reverse flow rate.

Why Hoffer had the advantage: 

The customer first considered (2) Annubar flowmeters back-to-back, one for forward and one for reverse flow measurement. This approach would have also required a flow switch to detect flow direction. Cost and complexity were big concerns. Consideration of a turbine flowmeter system offered a much simpler and less costly solution. Here's what it came down to:
Hoffer Flowstar flow computer
Hoffer Flowstar flow computer.
  • A single Hoffer flowmeter was usable for bi-directional flow measurement.
  • A Hoffer flow computer provided a split 4-20 mA signal representing both forward and reverse flow rate.
  • A Hoffer flow computer could provide linearization over the wide repeatable flow range provided by the insertion meter. This was critical because flow rates were low relative to the line size.
  • The Hoffer flowmeter was water tight, allowing for the possibility of flooded pits.
  • The Hoffer flowmeters are the adjustable type, and are installed through an isolation valve to allow user to service the flowmeters when necessary.
Summary: 

The use of Hoffer HP Series bi-directional insertion flowmeters provided the user economical flow rate/flow total information that efficiently enabled the water utility to manage the potable water throughout the system.

Saturday, May 12, 2018

9 Reasons to Use Temperature Transmitters Over Direct Wiring

Temperature transmitter
Temperature transmitter
(Moore Industries)
  1. Protect Signals From Plant Noise - Convert a sensor’s “weak” low-level signal to a high-level, RFI/EMI resistant signal that will accurately withstand long distance transmission through a noisy plant.
  2. Reduce Hardware Costs and Stocking Requirements - Convert RTD, T/C, mV, and ohm signals to a standard 4-20mA output. You can standardize on (and stock) inexpensive 4-20mA DCS and PLC input cards.
  3. Stop Ground Loops - Inherent input/output/power signal isolation protect against signal inaccuracies caused by ground loops. In place of costly isolated T/C and RTD DCS/PLC input cards, you can use far-less-expensive 4-20mA cards.
  4. Cut Wiring Costs - Fragile sensor extension wires cost three times more than the common shielded copper wire used for our transmitter’s 4-20mA signal.
  5. Lower Maintenance Time and Expense - Be able to keep track of sensor operation and quickly find and diagnose sensor failures.
  6. Enhance Measurement Accuracy - DCS and PLC systems measure readings over the entire (very wide) range of a sensor. Transmitters can be calibrated to any range within a sensor’s capabilities. Using a narrower range produces more accurate measurements.
  7. Avoid Lead Wire Resistance Imbalances - Transmitters accept true 4-wire RTD inputs. So you’ll be able to avoid lead wire resistance imbalances that inevitably result from wire corrosion and aging.
  8. Simplify Engineering and Maintenance and Prevent Mis-wiring - Instead of numerous sensor lead-wire and DCS/PLC input board combinations, your designs and drawings will only need to show one wire type (twisted wire pair) and one input board type (4- 20mA). Since your system will need only one type of wire and input board, maintenance is greatly simplified, and the chances of loop mis-wiring are virtually eliminated.
  9. Match the Best Sensor to the Application - Universal transmitters take nearly any RTD and T/C input. This lets you use whatever sensor is best for each particular process point. Direct DCS inputs aren’t nearly as flexible because they handle only one type of sensor input per card.
For more information, contact Arjay Automation by visiting https://arjaynet.com or call (800) 761-1749.

Abstracted from Moore Industries "Why Use Temperature Transmitters Instead of Direct Wiring".

Tuesday, May 1, 2018

The Honeywell Analytics Sensepoint XRL

Sensepoint XRL
Honeywell Analytics Sensepoint XRL
The Honeywell Analytics Sensepoint XRL is a single-sensor fixed gas detector designed to meet the needs of industrial applications, and supports the following interfaces (dependent on the model):
  • Analog output: Sensepoint XRL features current loop output, supporting signals in the range 0 to 22 mA. Typically this interface is referred to as 4 to 20 mA.
  • Digital output: Sensepoint XRL supports Modbus RTU digital communications.
  • Mobile app: A mobile app is available to commission and maintain the Sensepoint XRL gas detector.


Honeywell innovation enables customers to pair the gas detector with their mobile phone, and then use an app to perform many tasks related to installation, commissioning and maintenance. By using Honeywell's Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology, you can install, commission and maintain your Sensepoint XRL gas detector from your mobile device. By using their gas detector app you can mange the device from up to 10 meters away.

The Sensepoint XRL Provides:
  • Quick installation.
  • Rapid configuration.
  • Simple operation.
  • Straight forward to maintenance.
Sensepoint XRL is available as a flammable gas detector for the detection of potentially explosive gases, or as a toxic gas detector for the detection of a range of toxic gas hazards commonly found in industrial facilities.

For more information, read the embedded document below, or download the Honeywell Analytics Sensepoint XRL datasheet from here.

Wednesday, April 25, 2018

Thermal Mass Flow Meters and Sensors

Eldridge Products
Since 1988 Eldridge Products has been a world leader and premier manufacturer of thermal gas mass flow meters. Eldridge Products offer a wide range of flow meters manufactured in their own US facility.

Eldridge Products serve a diverse range of industrial and municipal applications for process control gas sub-metering and overall energy conservation. Their meters provide the information you need for maximizing boiler efficiency, HVAC flow adjustments and compressed air audits, as well as aeration basin and biogas measurement. In water and waste treatment facilities, Eldridge Products meet the requirements for the EPA's mandatory CO2 monitoring. Eldridge Products maintain their own NIST traceable calibration facility and all flow meters are assembled, calibrated, and tested in their Monterey facility.

Their meters are built according to CE, CUS, CSA, and ATEX standards and they guarantee a 100-percent quality inspection policy so you receive the best product in the industry.

Eldridge Products have abroad network of sales representatives and product distributors throughout the US and the world.

Saturday, April 21, 2018

Graphic "Paperless" Process Recorders

Yokogawa paperless recorder
Yokogawa paperless recorder.
There are probably few among us who long for the days when process recorders used paper. Video based graphic (also known as paperless) recorders, aside from being paperless, provide a broad range of functionality that empowers a user to display and deliver process information in whatever way is most useful for the application.

High sampling speed of multiple inputs that can be configured to accommodate a range of input signals, along with data storage, network communications and programmable alarm outputs power up the usefulness of these instruments for monitoring and documenting process operation. Many utilize touch sensitive screens, eliminating any buttons or keys on the operator panel.

Some of the great features available on today's paperless recorders:

  • Multiple channels of input
  • Start/stop recording by batch, and create data files
  • Ample internal memory
  • Creation of template-based Excel spreadsheets
  • Custom display function
  • Historical data with date and time calendar search function
  • Ethernet interface
  • PROFIBUS-DP and EtherNet/IP protocols
  • Dust and splash-proof front panel
  • Front panel door lock and login function

There are many options and variants to accommodate every conceivable process control application. Share your data acquisition and process monitoring challenges with instrumentation specialists, leveraging your own knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to develop an effective solution.

For more information on paperless recorders, contact Arjay Automation by visiting https://arjaynet.com or call (800) 761-1749 .