Sunday, November 10, 2019

Arjay Automation Thanks Our Veterans


Veterans Day honors all of those in our military, past and present. Through the observance of Veterans Day, we remind ourselves of the bravery, sacrifice, and selflessness of those who took an oath to defend the United States and our Constitution, from all enemies, foreign and domestic.

Arjay Automation thanks our Veterans for serving our country and protecting our freedom.

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Basic Control Valve Terminology: Part 2

Control Valve Terminology
Sanitary control valve
by Cashco
Reprinted with permission from Cashco.

Packing flange: A device that transfers the deforming mechanical load to the packing follower.

Packing follower: A part which transfers the deforming mechanical load to the packing from the packing flange or nut.

Packing lubricator assembly: A device for injection of lubricant/sealer into a lubricator packing box.

Pinch or clamp valve: A valve consisting of a flexible elastomeric tubular member connected to two rigid flow path ends whereby modulation and/or shut off of flow is accomplished by squeezing the flexible member into eventual tight sealing contact.

Plug: A term frequently used to refer to the closure member.

Plug valve: A rotary motion valve with a closure member that may be cylindrical or conical. Port: The flow control orifice of a control valve.

Port guiding: A valve closure member with wings or a skirt fitting into the seat ring bore.

Positioner: A position controller, which is mechanically connected to a moving part of a final control element or its actuator, and automatically adjusts its output pressure to the actuator in order to maintain a desired position that bears a predetermined relationship to the input signal. The positioner can be used to modify the action of the valve (reversing positioner), extend the stroke/controller.

Positioner, double acting: A positioner with two outputs, suited to a double acting actuator.

Positioner, single acting: A positioner with one output, suited to a spring opposed actuator.

Position switch: A position switch is a pneumatic, hydraulic or electrical device which is linked to the valve stem to detect a single, preset valve stem position.

Position transmitter: The position transmitter is a device that is mechanically connected to the valve stem or shaft and generates and transmits a pneumatic or electrical signal representing the valve position.

Post guiding: A design using guide bushing or bushings fitted into the bonnet or body to guide the plug’s post.

Control Valve Terminology
Cashco Control Valve
Pressure energized seal: A seal energized by differential pressure.

Rangeability inherent: The ratio of the largest flow coefficient (cv) to the smallest flow coefficient (cv) within which the deviation from the specified inherent flow characteristic does not exceed the stated limits.

Rated travel: The amount of movement of the valve closure member from the closed position to the rated full open position.

Seat: The area of contact between the closure component and its mating surface which establishes valve shut-off.

Seat ring: A part of the valve body assembly that provides a seating surface for the closure member and may provide part of the flow control orifice.

Shaft: The mechanical member used to support a rotary closure member.

Spring rate: The force change per unit change in length of a spring.

Stem connector: The device which connects the actuator stem to the valve stem. Stem guide: A guide bushing closely fitted to the valve stem and aligned with the seat.

Three-way valve: A valve with three end connections, used for mixing or diverting flow.

Throttling: The action of a control valve to regulate fluid flow by varying the position of the closure member. This service generates a variable pressure drop.

Transducer: A device that is actuated by power from one system and supplies power in another form to a second system.

Travel: The movement of the closure member from the closed position to an intermediate or rated full open position.

Travel indicator: A pointer and scale used to externally show the position of the closure member; typically in terms of units of opening percent of travel or degrees of rotation.

Trim: The internal components of a valve which modulate the flow of the controlled fluid.

  • Trim, anti-cavitation: A combination of control valve trim that by its geometry reduces the tendency of the controlled liquid to cavitate.
  • Trim, anti-noise: A combination of control valve trim that by its geometry reduces the noise generated by fluid flowing through the valve.
  • Trim, balanced: Control valve trim designed to minimize the net static and dynamic fluid flow forces acting on the trim.
  • Trim, reduced: Control valve trim which has a flow area smaller than the full flow area for that valve. Trim, soft seated: Valve trim with an elastomeric, plastic or other readily deformable material used
  • either in the closure component or seat ring to provide tight shutoff with minimal actuator forces.

Unbalance, dynamic: The net force/torque produced on the valve stem/shaft by fluid pressure acting on the closure member and stem/shaft at stated travel and flowing conditions.

Unbalance, static: The net force produced on the valve stem by the fluid pressure acting on the closure member and stem with the fluid at rest and with stated pressure conditions.

Valve: A device used for the control of fluid flow, consisting of a fluid retaining assembly, one or more ports between end openings and a movable closure member which opens, restricts or closes the port(s).
  • Balve, ball: A valve with a rotary motion closure member consisting of a full ball or a segmented ball.
  • Valve, diaphragm type: A valve with a flexible linear motion closure member which is moved into the
  • fluid flow passageway of the body to modify the rate of flow through the valve by the actuator.
  • Valve, floating ball: A valve with a full ball positioned within the valve that contacts either of two seat rings and is free to move toward the seat ring opposite the pressure source when in the closed position to effect tight shutoff.
  • Valve, globe: A valve with a linear motion closure member, one or more ports and a body distinguished by a globular shaped cavity around the port region.
Vena contracta: The location in a flow stream where fluid velocity is at its maximum and fluid static pressure and the cross-sectional area are at their minimum. In a control valve, the vena contracta normally occurs just downstream of the actual physical restriction.

Yoke: The structure which rigidly connects the actuator power unit to the valve.

BASIC CONTROL VALVE TERMINOLOGY: PART 1
SEE PREVIOUS POST


For more information about control valves, contact Arjay Automation. Call them at (800) 761-1749 or visit their web site at https://arjaynet.com.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Basic Control Valve Terminology: Part 1

Control Valve
Control Valve (Cashco)

Reprinted with permission of Cashco.

Actuator: An actuator is a pneumatic hydraulic, or electrically powered device which supplies force and motion to open or close a valve.

Airset: A regulator which is used to control the supply pressure to the valve actuator and its auxiliaries.

Angle valve: A valve design in which one port is collinear with the valve stem or actuator, and the other port is at a right angle to the valve stem.

Anti-cavitation trim: See “trim, anti-cavitation”. Anti-noise trim: See “trim, anti-noise”.

Bellows stem seal: A thin wall, convoluted, flexible component that makes a seal between the stem and bonnet or body and allows stem motion while maintaining a hermetic seal.

Control Valve
Cashco Control Valve
Benchset: The calibration of the actuator spring range of a control valve, to account for the in service process forces.

Body: The main pressure boundary of the valve that also provides the pipe connecting ends, the fluid flow passageway, and supports the seating surfaces and the valve closure member.

Bonnet: The portion of the valve that contains the packing box and stem seal and may guide the stem. It may also provide the principal opening to the body cavity for assembly of internal parts or be an integral part of the valve body. It may also provide for the attachment of the actuator to the valve body. Typical bonnets are bolted, threaded, welded to, pressure-sealed, or integral with the body.

Butterfly valve: A valve with a circular body and a rotary motion disk closure member, pivotally supported by its shaft.

Cage: A part of a valve trim that surrounds the closure member and may provide flow characterization and/ or a seating surface. It may also provide stability, guiding, balance, and alignment, and facilitate assembly of other parts of the valve trim.

Capacity: The rate of flow through a valve under stated conditions.
Control Valve
Sanitary Control Valve
(Cashco)
Cavitation: A two-stage phenomenon of liquid flow. The first stage is the formation of vapor bubbles
within liquid system due to static pressure of fluid at vena contracta falling below the fluid vapor pressure; the second stage is the collapse or implosion of these cavities back into an all-liquid state as the fluid decelerates and static pressure is recovered.

Characteristic, flow: An indefinite term, see “characteristic, inherent flow” and “characteristic, installed flow.”

Characteristic, equal percentage: An inherent flow characteristic which, for equal increments of rated travel, will ideally give equal percentage changes of the existing flow coefficient (cv).

Characteristic, inherent: The relationship between the flow coefficient (cv) and the closure member travel as it is moved from the closed position to rated travel with constant pressure drop across the valve.

Characteristic, linear: An inherent flow characteristic that can be represented by a straight line on a rectangular plot of flow coefficient (cv) versus rated travel. Therefore, equal increments of travel provide equal increments of flow coefficient (cv).

Characteristic, quick opening: An inherent flow characteristic in which a maximum flow coefficient is achieved with minimal closure member travel.

Characterized cam: A component in a valve positioner used to relate the closure member position to the control signal.

Characterized trim: Control valve trim that provides predefined flow characteristics.

Closure member: The movable part of the valve that is positioned in the flow path to modify the rate of flow through the valve.

Closure member configurations (plug):
  • Characterized: Closure member with contoured surface, such as the “vee plug,” to provide various flow characteristics.
  • Cylindrical: A cylindrical closure member with a flow passage through it (or a partial cylinder).
  • Eccentric: Closure member face is not concentric with the stem centerline and moves into seat when closing.
  • Eccentric spherical disk: Disk is spherical segment, not concentric with the disk stem.
  • Linear: A closure member that moves in a line perpendicular to the seating plane.
  • Rotary: A closure member which is rotated into or away from a seat to modulate flow.

Coefficient, flow: A constant (cv) related to the geometry of a valve, for a given valve travel, that can be used to predict flow rate.

Control valve: A valve which controls the flow rate or flow direction in a fluid system. The final control element, through which a fluid passes, that adjusts the flow passage as directed by a signal from a cont- roller to modify the flow rate.

Dual sealing valve: A valve that uses a resilient seating material for the primary seal and a metal-to-metal seat for a secondary seal.

End connection: The configuration provided to make a joint with the pipe.
  • End connections, flanged: Valve body with end connections incorporating flanges that mate with corresponding flanges on the piping.
  • End connections, split clamp: Valve end connections of various proprietary designs using split clamps to apply gasket or mating surface loading.
  • End connections, threaded: Valve end connections incorporating threads, either male or female.
  • End connections, welded: Valve end connections which have been prepared for welding to the line pipe or other fittings. May be butt weld (bw), or socket weld (sw).
Erosion resistant trim: Valve trim, that has been designed with special surface materials or geometry to resist the erosive effects of the controlled fluid flow.

Extension bonnet: A bonnet with a packing box that is extended above the bonnet joint of the valve body so as to maintain the temperature of the packing above or below the temperature of the process fluid. The length of the extension bonnet is dependent upon the difference between the fluid temperature and the packing design temperature limit as well as upon the valve body design.

Face to face dimension: The dimension from the face of the inlet opening to the face of the outlet opening of a valve or fitting.

Facing, flange: The finish on the end connection that mates with gasket surfaces.

Failure mode: The position to which the valve closure member moves when the actuating energy source fails.
  • Fail-closed: A condition wherein the valve closure member moves to a closed position when the actuating energy source fails.
  • Fail-in place: A condition wherein the valve closure member stays in its last position when the actuat- ing energy source fails.
  • Fail-open: A condition wherein the valve closure member moves to an open position when the actuat- ing energy source fails.
  • Fail-safe: A characteristic of a particular valve and its actuator, which upon loss of actuating energy supply, will cause a valve closure member to fully close, fully open or remain in fixed last position. Fail-safe action may involve the use of auxiliary controls connected to the actuator.
Flangeless control valve: A valve without integral line flanges, which is installed by bolting between companion flanges, with a set of bolts, or studs, generally extending through the companion flanges.

Guides, closure component: The means by which the closure is aligned with the seat and held stable throughout its travel. The guide is held rigidly in the body, bonnet, and/or bottom plate.

Hand jack: A manual override device, using a lever, to stroke a valve or to limit its travel.

Handwheel: A mechanical manual override device, using a rotary wheel, to stroke a valve or to limit its travel.

Hard facing: A material applied to valve internals to resist fluid erosion and/or to reduce the chance of galling between moving parts, particularly at high temperatures.

Hard plating: A thin metal deposit, sometimes electroplated, used to induce surface hardening. Hard plating is many orders of magnitude thinner than hard facing.

Hysteresis: The maximum difference in output value for any single input value during a calibration cycle, excluding errors due to dead band.

Integral seat: A flow control orifice and seat that is an integral part of the body or cage.

Jacketed valves: A valve body cast with a double wall or provided with a double wall by welding material around the body so as to form a passage for a heating or cooling medium. Also refers to valves which are enclosed in split metal jackets having internal heat passageways or electric heaters. Also referred to as “steam jacketed” or “vacuum jacketed.” in a vacuum jacketed valve, a vacuum is created in the space between the body and secondary outer wall to reduce the transfer of heat by convection from the atmosphere to the internal process fluid, usually cryogenic.

Lantern ring: A rigid spacer assembled in the packing box with packing normally above and below it and designed to allow lubrication of the packing or access for a leak-off connection.

Lapping-in: A process of mating contact surfaces by grinding and/or polishing.

Leakage, class: Classifications established by ansi b16.104 to categorize seat leakage tolerances for different sizes of control valve trim.

Leakage, seat: The quantity of fluid passing through a valve when the valve is in the fully closed position with pressure differential and temperature as specified.

Leak-off gland: A packing box with packing above and below the lantern ring so as to provide a collection point for fluid leaking past the primary seal (lower packing).

Lined valve body: A valve body in which a coating or liner has been applied to internal surfaces for cor- rosion/erosion protection or for flow shut off.

Liner, slip-in: An annular shaped liner which makes a slight interference fit with the body bore and which may be readily forced into position through the body end. May be plain or reinforced. Applies to butterfly valves.

Liquid pressure recovery factor: The ratio (fl) of the valve flow coefficient (cv) based on the pressure drop at the vena contracta, to the usual valve flow coefficient (cv) which is based on the overall pressure drop across the valve in non-vaporizing liquid service. These coefficients compare with the orifice metering coefficients of discharge for vena contracta taps and pipe taps, respectively. See ansi/isa-s75.01 “control valve sizing equations.”

Lubricator isolating valve: A manually operated valve used to isolate the packing lubricator assembly from the packing box.

Lubricator packing box: A packing arrangement consisting of a lantern ring with packing rings above and below with provision to lubricate the packing.

Mechanical limit stop: A mechanical device to limit the valve stem travel.

Mounting position: The location and orientation of an actuator or auxiliary component relative to the control valve. This can apply to the control valve itself relative to the piping.

Multiple orifice: A style of valve trim where the flow passes through a multiple of orifices in parallel or in series.

Nominal size: A numerical designation of size which is common to all components in a piping system other than components designated by outside diameters or by thread size. It is a convenient round number for reference purposes and is only loosely related to manufacturing dimensions. Iso uses initials dn as an abbreviation for the term with the letters dn followed by a numerical value designating size. All equipment of the same nominal size and nominal pressure rating shall have the same mating dimensions appropriate to the type of end connections.

Packing: A sealing system consisting of deformable material contained in a packing box which usually has an adjustable compression means to obtain or maintain an effective seal.

Packing box: The chamber, in the bonnet, surrounding the stem and containing packing and other stem sealing parts.

Basic Control Valve Terminology: Part 2 in next post.


For more information about control valves, contact Arjay Automation. Call them at (800) 761-1749 or visit their web site at https://arjaynet.com.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Field Instruments from Yokogawa and Arjay Automation

Arjay Automation, LLC

Arjay Automation, LLC is a proud partner of Yokogawa Corporation of America. Yokogawa is a leading manufacturer and supplier for the North American market in the fields of automation, measurement, and control. Yokogawa field instrument products includes a complete line of flowmeters, pressure transmitters, differential pressure transmitters, temperature transmitters, level transmitters, Fieldbus instruments and safety measurement instrumentation.

Pressure Transmitters

The accurate and stable measurement of process pressure with Yokogawa Pressure Transmitters supports the safe, reliable, and profitable operation of your plant.

Flow Meters

Yokogawa's range of flow meter instruments include vortex, magnetic, variable area, Coriolis, and differential pressure flow meters.

Temperature Transmitters

Yokogawa offers a full line of temperature transmitters that are head-mounted, panel-mounted, or field-mounted.

Level Meters

Yokogawa has more than 45 years' experience in the development, design, and manufacture of pressure sensors and pressure transmitters. The DPharp series of digital pressure transmitters use a differential pressure high accuracy resonance (DPharp) sensor that represents one of the most revolutionary advances in transmitter technology.


Field Wireless

The flexibility of wireless solutions enables less investment in infrastructure while providing greater insights into plant operations.


Device Smart Communicators

Yokogawa offers a variety of communication protocols; including, FOUNDATION Fieldbus, HART, BRAIN, ISA100, Profibus, and Modbus to help support smart devices in this evolving digital communication technology.

For more information about Yokogawa field instruments, contact Arjay Automation. Call them at (800) 761-1749 or visit their web site at https://arjaynet.com.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Yokogawa SMARTDAC+ GX and GP: Navigation Screen Tutorial


The Yokogawa SMARTDAC+ is a fresh approach to data acquisition and control,  with smart and simple touch operation as a design priority. Measure, display and archive process data with greater levels of clarity, intelligence and accessibility. The GX/GO user interface provides:
  • Wide variety of display formats
  • Powerful data search functions
  • Alarm/Status indicator functions
  • Touch screen for intuitive operation
  • Easy-to-navigate, user-oriented design
  • Supports freehand messages
The video above provides a tutorial of the SMARTDAC+ GX and GP Smart User Interface.

For more information about guided wave radar transmitters, contact Arjay Automation. Call them at (800) 761-1749 or visit their web site at https://arjaynet.com.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Infrared Suspended Solids Sensor for Cheese Curd Cutting: Getting the Timing Right to Avoid Waste, Save Money

In the making of cheese a coagulant is added to the milk to coagulate the solids creating a curd. At an optimum point of coagulation, cutters are run through the cheese curd releasing whey. There are various ways the cut point is found, some quite sophisticated and some very simple. It can be challenging to get a repeatable cutting point from batch to batch therefore quality can vary resulting in waste and loss of solids.

Quadbeam Technologies manufactures a four beam ratio-metric infra-red, self compensating light attenuation sensor can accurately detect the change in the transmission of light through the curd. This technology can repeatedly identify a predetermined point for optimal cutting.  To read the full application note, visit the link below.




Arjay Automation, LLC
https://arjaynet.com
(800) 761-1749

Saturday, July 6, 2019

The Basics of Pilot Operated Tank Relief Valves


When liquid is pumped in, storage tanks are pressurized and the current tank vapor is compressed. Tanks are also pressurized owing to higher ambient temperatures that cause the vapor of the tank to expand. Pilot operated pressure relief valves are mounted on tanks to mitigate harm caused by these growing tank vapors to avoid structural harm arising from overpressure.

Here is an outstanding animation, courtesy of Cashco, showing how a relief vent operated by a pilot valve protects a storage tank from overpressurizing during a pump-in condition or during rising ambient temperatures.

For more information on pilot operated tank relief valves, contact Arjay Automation at www.arjaynet.com or by calling (800) 761-1749.

Sunday, June 30, 2019

US Power Grids, Oil and Gas Industries, and Risk of Hacking


A report released in June, from the security firm Dragos, describes a worrisome development by a hacker group named, “Xenotime” and at least two dangerous oil and gas intrusions and ongoing reconnaissance on United States power grids.

Multiple ICS (Industrial Control Sectors) sectors now face the XENOTIME threat; this means individual verticals – such as oil and gas, manufacturing, or electric – cannot ignore threats to other ICS entities because they are not specifically targeted.

The Dragos researchers have termed this threat proliferation as the world’s most dangerous cyberthreat since an event in 2017 where Xenotime had caused a serious operational outage at a crucial site in the Middle East.

The fact that concerns cybersecurity experts the most is that this hacking attack was a malware that chose to target the facility safety processes (SIS – safety instrumentation system).

For example, when temperatures in a reactor increase to an unsafe level, an SIS will automatically start a cooling process or immediately close a valve to prevent a safety accident. The SIS safety stems are both hardware and software that combine to protect facilities from life threatening accidents.

At this point, no one is sure who is behind Xenotime. Russia has been connected to one of the critical infrastructure attacks in the Ukraine.  That attack was viewed to be the first hacker related power grid outage.

This is a “Cause for Concern” post that was published by Dragos on June 14, 2019.

“While none of the electric utility targeting events has resulted in a known, successful intrusion into victim organizations to date, the persistent attempts, and expansion in scope is cause for definite concern. XENOTIME has successfully compromised several oil and gas environments which demonstrates its ability to do so in other verticals. Specifically, XENOTIME remains one of only four threats (along with ELECTRUM, Sandworm, and the entities responsible for Stuxnet) to execute a deliberate disruptive or destructive attack.

XENOTIME is the only known entity to specifically target safety instrumented systems (SIS) for disruptive or destructive purposes. Electric utility environments are significantly different from oil and gas operations in several aspects, but electric operations still have safety and protection equipment that could be targeted with similar tradecraft. XENOTIME expressing consistent, direct interest in electric utility operations is a cause for deep concern given this adversary’s willingness to compromise process safety – and thus integrity – to fulfill its mission.

XENOTIME’s expansion to another industry vertical is emblematic of an increasingly hostile industrial threat landscape. Most observed XENOTIME activity focuses on initial information gathering and access operations necessary for follow-on ICS intrusion operations. As seen in long-running state-sponsored intrusions into US, UK, and other electric infrastructure, entities are increasingly interested in the fundamentals of ICS operations and displaying all the hallmarks associated with information and access acquisition necessary to conduct future attacks. While Dragos sees no evidence at this time indicating that XENOTIME (or any other activity group, such as ELECTRUM or ALLANITE) is capable of executing a prolonged disruptive or destructive event on electric utility operations, observed activity strongly signals adversary interest in meeting the prerequisites for doing so.”

Monday, June 24, 2019

Variable Area Flow Meters: An Overview

Variable Area Flow Meter
Variable area flow meters, also referred to as Rotameters, have diverse industrial processing applications that range from simple to sophisticated. The devices are easy to install, require no electrical connection, and provide direct flow rate reading. They provide fail-safe flow rate readings in a wide array of industrial applications.

Developed by German inventor Karl Kueppers in 1908, Rotameters measure the volumetric flow rate of liquids and gases. 

Important elements of a variable area flow meter include the tube and the float. Their operation is simple. The tube is fixed vertically and the fluid is fed from the bottom. It travels upward and exits from the top. The float remains at the bottom when no liquid is present and rises upward when fluid enters the tube. 

The float inside the tube moves in proportion to the rate of fluid flow and the area between the tube wall and the float. When the float moves upward, the area increases while the differential pressure decreases. A stable position is reached when the upward force exerted by the fluid is equal to the weight of the float. A scale mounted on the tube records the flow rate of the liquid. Usually, the flow can be adjusted manually using a built-in valve. 

Types of Variable Area Flow Meters 

Variable area flow meters can be categorized by the type of tube they use, which relates to their ability to withstands various pressures, temperatures, process media, and cost. Process connection size and wetted part materials vary as a function the rotameter type and construction. 

Glass Tube Variable Area Flow Meter - The basic glass variable area flow meter consists of borosilicate glass tube while the float is made of either glass, plastic, or stainless steel. The most common combination is a glass tube and metal float. This is suitable for a measure the flow rate of liquid of low to medium temperatures and pressures. 

Applications: Analytical instrumentation; Industrial processes; Chemical production; Pharmaceutical production; Oil & gas extraction; Refining processes; Fuel cell research; Water treatment systems.

Metal Tube Variable Area Flow Meter - Metal tube variable area flow meters are another type that is suitable for temperatures and pressures beyond the physical and mechanical limits of glass tube versions. They are generally manufactured of stainless steel, aluminum, or brass. The piston position is determined by the mechanical and magnetic followers that can be read from the outside of the tube. They are suitable in situations where applications conditions would damage the glass metering tubes, such as steam applications.

Applications: Purge liquid or gas metering; Liquid, gas, or oil flow measurement; Chemical injection; Rotating equipment flow measurement; High-pressure flow meters for offshore oil platforms.

For more information on rotameters, visit this Arjay Automation web page or contact them by calling (800) 761-1749.

Wednesday, June 5, 2019

Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitters

Guided wave radar transmitters are widely used across different industries. These devices with their simple installation and trouble-free operations help industrial companies save time and money. They are ideal for a large number of process applications ranging from simple to complex.

How Do Guided Wave Radar Transmitters Work?

Guided wave radar transmitters rely on microwave pulses. Since microwaves are not affected by dust, pressure, temperature variations, and viscosity, this type of transmitter produces highly accurate results.

A low-energy microwave pulse is sent down a probe, and a part of it is reflected back when the pulse hits the process media. The liquid level is directly proportional to the time-domain reflectometry. The time when the pulse is launched and received back is measured to determine the distance from the surface of the media.

Types of Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitters

Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter
Single Element Design
(NIVELCO)
Guided wave radar level transmitters are available in different probe configurations. Selecting the
right probe is important for successful implementation of the device. While manufacturers offer a range of guided wave radars, most are derived from the three basic probe configurations: single element, twin element, and coaxial.

Single element probe — The single element probe is the most widely used and least efficient device. The device is popular since it is more resistant to the coating of the liquid.

Twin element probe — The twin element probe is a good, general purpose probe that is generally used in long-range applications. They are ideal in situations where flexible probes are important for successful reading.

Coaxial probe — The coaxial probe configuration is the most efficient guided wave radar level transmitters. The probes are used in more challenging low-dielectric applications.

Benefits of Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitters

Guided Wave Radar Level transmitters provide a range of benefits in different applications. The concentration of the measuring signal is strong and clean. This is due to the narrow path of the signal propagation that reduces the chances of impact by stray signals due to obstacles or construction elements inside the tank.

Another benefit of guided wave radar level transmitters is that they are easy to install. No mounting holes are required to install the device. This results in cost savings for the organization. The waveguide can be formed to follow the tank’s contours or mounted at an angle.

The device is ideal in situations where an interface measurement is required. The measuring signals can penetrate the medium deeply, resulting in more accurate results. The waveguide technology is suitable for applications where the medium is subjected to heavy vapors, foam, and dust.

Guided Wave instruments can detect changes in dielectric consents on the boundary of a property. The device can be configured to detect level at both the top and the bottom of a layer of emulsion.

Industrial Application of Guided Wave Radar

Guided wave radar level transmitters are increasingly being used in process industries. The sensors are used in situations that previously employed ultrasonic, hydrostatics, and capacitance. The accuracy specification of the basic model range is up to ±5mm, while the accuracy of the advanced models is up to ±2mm.

The device is generally used in industries to take level readings. The readings are used for local indication and visualization in control systems.

Moreover, guided wave radar level transmitters are also used for managing liquid inventory, determining safety limits, dry run protection, and leak detection. Other applications of guided wave radar level transmitters include communicating low limits to suppliers, automated ordering systems, and streamlining the logistics process.

Guided radar level measurement is also suitable for bulk solids. The surface type is not restricted to liquids since the reflected waves are guided easily through any medium. Foam formation and turbulent liquid surfaces and different angled surfaces (as is the case with bulk solids) don’t influence the accuracy of the reading.

Selection of Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitters

Selection of guided wave radar level transmitters should be based on the requirements of the task. Generally, the rigid single element probe configuration is ideal for angled installations for flowing liquids. The dual flexible wire probe is suitable for most other common applications.

A coaxial probe configuration is recommended for liquids that are cleaner with low dielectric constant and with turbulence on the product’s surface. This type of guided wave radar device is also recommended for installations where the probe is near the tank wall or other obstacles.

Make sure that the device can withstand the range of temperature within the tank. Most GWR devices are rated up to 850 deg F or 450 deg C. You should select a device with added signal strength since this will result in increased reliability and accuracy of the devices.

Guided wave radar level transmitter with dynamic vapor compensation is recommended where a high level of accuracy is required under a high-pressure environment. The measurement taken from the device can compensate for changes in vapor dielectric, which results in improved accuracy.

Other factors that should be considered include mounting and proximity. Single probe configuration can be installed almost anywhere. But the single probe configuration can only to apply to specific situations.

Lastly, the probe length of the device should be of the right length. The length should be according to the measurement rate. This is an important consideration as it can help in ensuring accurate reading with minimum chances of an error.

Guided Wave radar level transmitters can also be used with an agitator. However, certain things must be considered prior to use the device. The probe must be prevented from contacting the agitator blades. Make sure that you confirm the ability of the probe to withstand the force inside the medium. This is important since turbulent on the surface may decrease the accuracy of the measurement. You can install the device in a bypass chamber or stilling well for an agitated tank.

For more information about guided wave radar transmitters, contact Arjay Automation. Call them at (800) 761-1749 or visit their web site at https://arjaynet.com.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Bridging the Gap between HART Devices and IIoT, the Industrial Internet of Things

Manufacturing Plant of the Future

The typical process control model that involves decision making for the process at the local or centralized level by PLCs (Programmable Logic Controller) or BPCS (Basic Process Control System) is quickly changing. These systems installed yesteryear were never intended to deal with or even realize the amount of data they would have access to in the near future. There are certainly newer ERP, MES and asset management systems that collect some of this data now, but the more critical challenge that local manufacturing facilities face is manpower. Because streamlining of costs and overheads has left many manufacturing facilities with just enough personnel to keep the plant running, facilities no longer have the extra time, personnel and resources required to analyze data. For this reason we are seeing third party companies, and even some of the larger process control vendors, offer leasing or annual agreements that involve collecting, storing, and analyzing all sorts of process data. This data is part of a larger predictive analytics strategy that can not only forewarn operators of impending problems to come, but is also being used to optimize the process itself. This type of cloud automation looks to gather as much data as possible to reduce operating expenditures and future capital expenditures for future plant builds.


So the challenge remains: how do existing and new manufacturing facilities find a cost effective way to get critical plant floor data up to higher level information systems? The answer is to take advantage of the digital HART data you already have installed but either didn’t know it was there or couldn’t afford the equipment upgrades to gain access to it.

This white paper, courtesy of Moore Industries, will outline how the flow of process and diagnostics data from smart HART digital field instruments can now be shared with mid and higher level control, asset management and data information systems without having to upgrade expensive process control interface equipment. Additionally, features and considerations of devices that enable this sharing of data will be reviewed and suggested.

Table of Contents
  • Plant of the Future
  • HART Protocol’s Persistence
  • HART Primer
  • HART Revisions and Compliance
  • HART Dynamic and Device Variables
  • HART Hosts and Revisions
  • HART Interface Options
  • Employing the Extracted HART Data
  • Cybersecurity Considerations
  • Configuration of IIoT Devices
For more information, contact Arjay Automation, LLC. Call (800) 761-1749 or visit https://arjaynet.com.

Friday, April 26, 2019

Basics of Industrial Flame Arresters


Flame arresters are a passive devices with no moving parts, engineered to allow hot gas to pass through its body, while stopping a flame, thus preventing a larger fire or explosion.  Flame Arresters uses a wound metal ribbon type element that prevents the spread of flame from the exposed side of the arrester to the protected side of the arrester. The metal element's construction provides a matrix of engineered openings that are carefully calculated and sized to quench the flame by absorbing the flame's heat. As an explosion flame travels through a narrow metal space, heat is transmitted to the walls, energy is lost and only vapor gasses are able to pass through. Flame Arresters are used in many industries such as mining, power generation, petrochemical, chemical,  wastewater treatment, pulp and paper, refining, and pharmaceutical.

For more information on flame arresters, contact Arjay Automation:
https://arjaynet.com
(800) 761-1749

Sunday, April 21, 2019

The SENCOM™ SMART Sensor Platform from Yokogawa

SENCOM™ SMART Sensor Platform
The SENCOM™ SMART Sensor Platform has been designed with a strong focus on Yokogawa's digital SMART sensors and provides greater insight and enhanced capabilities for more reliable data across the entire product lifetime.

Yokogawa's latest SMART sensor system enhances the operation, reliability, and credibility of online process analyzers, from the engineering and purchasing to modification and optimization, by using the latest sensing technologies and asset management tools.

The SENCOM™ SMART Sensor Platform has been designed with a strong focus on Yokogawa's digital SMART sensors and provides greater insight and enhanced capabilities for more reliable data across the entire product lifetime.

Yokogawa's latest SMART sensor system enhances the operation, reliability, and credibility of online process analyzers, from the engineering and purchasing to modification and optimization, by using the latest sensing technologies and asset management tools.

Simple Setup and Configuration

SENCOM™ SMART Sensor PlatformThe SENCOM™ 4.0 Platform is designed with an intuitive menu structure, easy-to-understand configuration, alarm settings, and clear error-fixing information to help you make credible and reliable measurements of online process control.

Environmentally Friendly Design

Conventional SMART sensors include integrated electronics on top of an analog sensor, therefore the still operating electronics must be thrown away once the sensor has reachable the end of its lifetime, adding to global waste.

SENCOM™ SMART Sensor PlatformThe SENCOM™ 4.0 platform includes a reusable SMART adapter, so only an analog sensor has to be removed when it reaches the end of its lifetime, thereby reducing waste and costs.

Easy and Efficient Maintenance

The Maintenance Manager is a data management system that allows technicians to forecast maintenance and calibration frequency, estimate the service life of the sensor, and estimate the life expectancy of the sensor.

Calibration data are stored within the memory chip of the SMART sensor using the SENCOM™ 4.0 platform. Once the sensor is connected to the analyzer, it is possible to download or upload the latest calibration data to the FLXA402 analyzer, thus avoiding the need for field calibration.



Arjay Automation, LLC
https://arjaynet.com
(800) 761-1749

Friday, March 22, 2019

Webinar: pH Basics - Quick and Dirty Tips by Yokogawa

Yokogawa Webinar
March 28, 2019 2 PM Eastern

The pH electrode offers by far the greatest sensitivity and rangeability of any measurement. Making the most out of your pH readings requires proper mixing and control.

Join this webinar and learn how to monitor, troubleshoot, and maintain electrodes and control valves. Review control strategies for pH applications critical to product and water quality in the process industry.

In this webinar, you will learn:
  • Fundamental requirements for pH measurements
  • The importance of proper maintenance and calibration techniques
  • The value and use of equipment diagnostics.
Date: March 28, 2019
Time: 2:00 PM Eastern  
Duration: 1 Hour

Thursday, March 14, 2019

Process Weighing Systems Overview

High-accuracy, batch-processing tank
fully supported by KIS Weigh Modules.
In its simplest form, a weigh system consists of a vessel whose contents are to be monitored, load cells or weigh modules that generate a signal proportional to the vessel weight, and an electronic device to power, amplify, interpret and display the signal. However, the accuracy of such a system, while obviously a function of the instrumentation, is also dependent upon the vessel design (reactor, batch tank, inventory silo, etc.), support structure, piping attachments, lateral restraint system, vessel environment (temperature, traffic, nearby equipment), and proper selection of transducer accessories. In short, weigh system accuracy is inexorably tied to the degree of attention given to the mechanical details and vessel functionality.

High accuracy, process weighing systems exhibit system errors under 0.05% for buy-and-sell to 0.25%. Precision load cells or weigh modules with full temperature compensation must be used. To achieve this, the following mechanical requirements are imposed:
  • The weigh vessel must be fully supported by load cells/weigh modules. The number of load cells/weigh modules may vary from one (in tension) to eight (in compression). Generally, as the number of load cells de-creases, the vessel wall thickness and support structure stiffness must increase to carry the higher vessel support reactions lest vessel deformation cause calibration errors.
  • Mechanical restrictions from attached piping and lateral restraints should be avoided. Highly flexible piping attachments are recommended.
  • Hot gas or steam-heating schemes which produce variable buoyancy should be avoided. Consult factory for alternate solutions.
  • Low accuracy inventory weighing systems are those with a system error greater than 0.5%. General purpose cells/ modules are satisfactory for these systems. Mechanical considerations are relaxed considerably:
  • The weigh vessel need only be partially supported by load cells/weigh modules, usually one or two on any side or end of the vessel. This, however, requires the contents to be self-leveling and the vessel itself to be without partitions, so that the load fraction carried by the load cells/ modules is unchanging. (Vessels falling into these two categories must be fully supported, independent of the accuracy required.)
  • Modest mechanical restrictions may be tolerated, but nonlinear mechanical hang-ups or frictional interfaces must still be avoided.
Accuracy Versus Repeatability

Low-accuracy, storage silo partially
supported by KIS Weigh Modules.
Do not confuse system accuracy with repeatability! As long as the mechanical error in a given system is linear with deflection and independent of the environment (temperature, traffic, surrounding vessels, etc.), the inherent system repeatability will be greater than its accuracy. For example, BLH Nobel Transducer Indicators typically have an overall accuracy specification of 0.01% of reading, ±1 count (or better), of which repeatability is but a small fraction. BLH Nobel load transducers, meanwhile, typically display a repeatability of 0.01 to 0.02%. Thus, most BLH Nobel systems will be repeatable within 0.03% of full scale, independent of how the system is calibrated. For most batching operations, repeatability is essential, whereas accuracy (actual pounds used) is of secondary importance once the operating parameters have been established. Field calibration, when required, is generally done by electronic simulation. For buy-and-sell installations, where distribution is by weight, calibration and repeatability are essential; field calibration is always performed employing a dead weight method.

Definitions:
  • Accuracy - Ability of the system to perform weighing functions within an acceptable or desirable tolerance; usually stated as a percentage of either full-scale reading, or ±n count(s) referred to the total number of scale divisions.
  • Repeatability - The ability of the system to read the same value when the measured weight is applied repeatedly in the same manner with the same quantity under constant conditions.
Maximum accuracy and repeatability is obtained by placing high accuracy load cells/modules at all support points and connecting them to instrumentation that measures each cell/module individually.

For more information on any process weighing application, contact Arjay Automation. They can be reached by phone at (800) 761-1749, or visit them on the Web at https://arjaynet.com.

Thursday, February 28, 2019

The Yokogawa YS1000 Series Single Loop Controller

YS1700

Now that entire Moore/Siemens 350 family is obsolete, are you considering upgrading to a DCS? 

Are you concerned about the cost and time for a new installation, application development and personnel training?

Is it possible that the new equipment vendor may again leave you stranded with their equipment as their core business is not industrial automation and control?

We have a better solution for you: Yokogawa and its YS1700 PID loop controller. Yokogawa has been providing industrial solutions, as their primary business, for over a century and their YS1700 will keep you off of eBay looking for spare 353 parts.



Friday, February 22, 2019

Consider This Robust and Flexible Multi-point Magnetic Level Switch for your Next Tank Level Application


The NIVELCO NIVOPOINT is a flexible, multi-point magnetic float level switch available with awide variety of floats. The NIVOPOINT magnetic float level switch is an ideal solution for single or multi-point level controlling tasks in non-hazardous or hazardous areas. Plastic coated versions are available, suitable for level detection of aggressive liquids, while ATEX certified versions do an excellent job in explosive medium.

Operating Principle:

NIVOPOINT magnetic float level switches work on the basis of the interaction of the magnet incorporated in the float, and the reed switches within the probe.

The float of the NIVOPOINT level switch moves alongside the probe tube, tracking the level of the measured liquid and activating the reed switches.

NIVOPOINT magnetic float level switches are recommended for the following applications.
  • Multi-point level switching.
  • Controlling pumps and valves.
  • Level detection of practically all liquids, including aggressive ones.
  • Level switching of explosive liquids.
Main features:
  • Level switching without auxiliary power.
  • Up to 5 switching points.
  • The position of the switches can be adjusted.
  • Plus or minus 25 millimeter adjustment possibility of the positioning of the switches.
  • Plastic coated versions for aggressive chemicals.
  • 150 degree Celcius median temperature.
  • Mini version for tight places
  • Wide variety of floats.
  • Ex version
  • IP65 and IP68 protection
For more information on the NIVELCO NIVOPOINT magnetic level switch, contact Arjay Automation by calling (800) 761-1749 or visiting their web site at https://arjaynet.com. 

Tuesday, February 12, 2019

Selecting the Right Gas Detection Solution

Honeywell gas detection
XNX™ Universal Transmitter
Reprinted from https://www.honeywellanalytics.com. Original article by Don Galman. 

There are many gas detection products on the market that might appear to be the same, but a closer inspection of specification, functionality and features reveals major differences in what products can do and the potential value they can offer. Similarly, individual applications are also unique in their respective designs, needs and processes undertaken.

Know your site risks

Before beginning to consider gas detection equipment, a risk assessment needs to be conducted. Any company employing staff has the obligation to conduct risk assessments to identify potential hazards and these can include potential gas, vapor or Oxygen deficiency risks. If gas hazards are identified, gas detection is applicable as a risk reduction method.

Identifying the prime objective

Depending on the processes being undertaken and the gases being detected, remote or off-site alarm notification plus event data logging/reporting may also be required for Health and Safety management records. Another factor impacting on the need for enhanced reporting functions might be regulatory compliance or a condition of insurance.

Ask the right questions

Having identified the primary objective, the suitable equipment is selected by asking a number of key questions. These fall into three broad categories:

• The gases to be detected and where they may come from

• The location and environmental conditions where detection is to take place

• The ease of use for operators and routine servicing personnel

Identify the gases to be detected and where they may come from

The gases to be detected should be identified by the risk assessment, however experienced gas detection equipment manufacturers and their approved distributors are often able to help in this process, based on their experience of similar applications. However, it is important to remember that it is the end-user’s responsibility to identify all potential hazards.

It is also essential to identify the potential source of a gas release as this helps determine the number and location of detectors required for a fixed gas detection system.

Consider the environmental conditions

Honeywell gas detection
Sensepoint XCD
The performance, accuracy and reliability of any gas detection equipment will be affected by the environmental conditions it is subjected to. Temperature, humidity and pressure levels at the location all have a direct bearing on the type of equipment that should be selected. Additional factors such as potential variations resulting from a production process itself, diurnal/nocturnal fluctuations and seasonal changes may also affect the type of device which is suitable.

Understand product functionality

The next area of consideration relates to additional product functionality. Aspects like wiring configuration are important, especially when retro-fitting into an existing application. If the apparatus is being integrated into a separate safety system, certain communication protocols may also be required such as HART®, Lonworks or Modbus®.

Consideration will also need to be given regarding the requirement for local displays on transmitter units and local configuration of the unit and gas displays may also be a useful addition.

Measure the ease of use for operators and routine servicing personnel

Routine maintenance is another important consideration. Some gases and vapors can be detected with a number of different sensing technologies, e.g. Hydrocarbon gases with catalytic beads or Non-dispersive Infrared NDIR. Catalytic beads do not provide fail-to-safety operation and therefore can require a high frequency of routine maintenance, however NDIR based solutions tend to have a higher initial purchase price, but may require less routine maintenance. In-house resource to undertake such routine maintenance needs to be identified and in the absence of such a resource, budgeting for third party maintenance is an important factor in selecting the right equipment.

For more information on Honeywell hazardous or flammable gas detection, contact Arjay Automation by calling (800) 761-1749 or visiting https://arjaynet.com.

Thursday, January 31, 2019

Arjay Automation: We Solve Process Control Problems


Arjay Automation is a Manufacturer’s representative with extensive experience in the application and sale of controls and instrumentation for industrial and utility automation. Our real strength is solving problems in process control, flowmeter selection, analytical instrumentation, electrical watt hour metering, protective relaying and utility test equipment. Our sales people are technical and can offer help in applying technical products to meet our customer’s needs. Call us at (800) 761-1749 or visit our website at https://arjaynet.com.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Wireless Technology in Industrial Automation

The use of wireless technology in industrial automation systems offers a number of potential benefits, from the obvious cost reduction brought about by the elimination of wiring to the availability of better plant information, improved productivity and better asset management.

However, its practical implementation faces a number of challenges: not least the present lack of a universally agreed standard. This article looks at some of these challenges and presents the approach being taken by Yokogawa.

You can download a PDF copy of "Wireless Technology in Industrial Automation" from this link.

Friday, January 11, 2019

Rotating Equipment Condition Monitoring: Critical to Safety, Production, and Profit


Rotating industrial and commercial machinery provides critical and non-critical functions to thousands of manufacturing and processing plants across many industries in the USA.

The detection of changes in a normal vibration pattern is one of several important parameters used to determine equipment deterioration and predict machinery breakdown. The sophisticated monitoring of vibration, along with other machinery operating variables, is known as condition monitoring.

By incorporating an equipment condition monitoring strategy for all your rotating equipment, everything from large large turbine generators to basic production line equipment, operators benefit from the establishment of planned maintenance outages and avoid the very costly down-time resulting from breakdowns and unplanned outages.

For more about equipment condition monitoring, contact Arjay Automation.
https://arjaynet.com
(800) 761-1749